About uPVC

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes are made from a combination of plastic and vinyl. These pipes are durable, hard to damage and long lasting. They do not rust, rot, or wear over a long period of time. Therefore, uPVC pipes are most commonly used for cold water applications in plumbing, water supply, underground drainage and sewage lines.

Due to the ability of PVC pipe to withstand extreme movement and bending, it is also increasingly used in earthquake prone areas. It can withstand rigorous shaking of earth without experiencing any damage.

The smooth surface of the pipe is also resistant to bacterial contamination such as E.coli. Therefore, many water companies rely on uPVC pipes in their systems in order to keep them free of contamination. The general properties of uPVC are given below.

Physical Properties
Density [g/cm3] 1.3 - 1.45
Thermal conductivity [w/(m.k)] 0.14 - 0.28
Yield strength [MPa] 31 - 60
Young's modulus [psi] 490,000
Flexural strength (yield) [psi] 10,500
Compression strength [psi] 9500
Coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) [mm(mmoC)] 5 x 10 - 5
Vicat B [°C] 65 - 100
Resistivity [Qm] 1016
Surface resistivity [Q] 1013 - 1014
Zenith Irrigation

Fire Resistant

Our uPVC Piping Systems are self-extinguishing and do not support combustion. They are therefore ideally suited for use in buildings and houses. uPVC mus be forced to burn due to its High Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) of 45. LOI is the percentage if oxygen needed in an atmosphere to support combustion. Since the Earth’s atmosphere is only 21% oxygen, uPVC will not burn unless a flame is constantly applied, and stops burning when the ignition source is removed.

Material LOI
Cotton 16 - 17
Polypropylene (PP) 18
Polyethylene (PE) 18
Wood 20
Atmospheric content of OXYGEN 21
uPVC 45

Material Safety Data Sheet

Product Name :- Poly (Vinyl Chloride)(PVC) pipe, conduit
Other Names & Variants :- Polyvinyl chloride, Unplasticised PVC, unmodified PVC (UPVC, uPVC)
Manufacturer’s Product Code :- Various
Dangerous Goods Class & Subsidiary Risk :- Not classified as hazardous
Hazchem Code :- No code allocated
Poisons Schedule Number :- Not listed
Use :- Water supply, irrigation, sewerage, drainage, industrial process piping, telecommunications and electrical conduit
Physical Description / Properties
Appearance :- Opaque rigid solid tubes, diameters from 15 to 300mm, lengths up to 6m, various colours (e.g. white, grey, blue, orange),
with or without jointing sockets. Various fittings to match, (e.g. tees, bends, reducers, couplings etc.).
Boiling Point / Melting Point :- Softening point: >75°C. Decomposition initiates at approximately 140°C.
Vapour Pressure :- Not Applicable
Relative Density :- 1.3 – 1.6
Flash Point :- Not applicable
Flammability Limits :- Combustible, Self-Extinguishing
Solubility in water :- Insoluble
Chemical Name :- Proportion
PVC 70 – 80%
Fillers (e.g.Calcium carbonate) 3 – 16%
Stabilizers (e.g. Calcium Zinc) 1.5 – 4 %
Lubricants (e.g. Wax) 0.5 – 1 %
Modifiers (e.g. CPE) 0 – 5%
Pigments (e.g. TiO2) 1 – 4 %

Health Hazard Information


There are no significant health hazards associated with PVC pipe products under normal conditions of use or from mechanical working or forming the product. All additives are encapsulated within the polymer matrix and should present no hazard under conditions of normal use and good occupational work practice. For pipes intended for use with potable water, extraction of metals and residual monomer is limited to safe levels by requirements of Indian Standards. Peripheral effects may arise from combustion or misuse. See section PRECAUTIONS FOR USE. No listed carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic effects. However, it is recommended that PVC pipes with lead stabilisation systems not be used for the purpose of storing potable water (e.g. as may be used in campervans or mobile homes), or in systems where water is not continuously or regularly replaced (e.g. hydroponic systems where water is continuously recycled). For such applications potable water pipes using calcium-zinc or other non-lead based systems may be used.


Swallowed : There are no known health effects for the ingestion of PVC.

Eye and Skin : Inapplicable to the solid except for mechanical injury. Dust from sawing may affect eyes if not protected. Hydrogen Chloride and other fumes emitted during combustion cause irritation to the eyes and skin.

Inhaled : Inapplicable to the solid product. Inhalation of combustion products, especially hydrogen chloride, causes irritation of the respiratory tract. Individuals with bronchial asthma and other chronic obstructive respiratory diseases may develop bronchia-spasm if exposure is prolonged.

Chronic : Inhalation of PVC dust created by mechanical working has been reported to cause fine nodules visible on chest x-rays. Contact with heavy concentrations of gaseous combustion by-products may result in formation of permanent scar tissue.

First Aid : Swallowed: No harmful effect. No LD50 data is available for product

Eye and skin : No specific treatment. Treat mechanical injury and dust contact by normal procedures. Gaseous combustion by-products: irrigate with fresh water, seek medical assistance if effect persists. If molten material contacts skin and adhere, cool quickly with running water. DONOT attempt to remove. Seek medical advice.

Inhaled : Gaseous combustion by-products: remove from source of exposure. Seek medical advice.

First Aid Facilities : No special requirements

Advice to Doctor : Treat symptomatically

Precaution For Use

Exposure Standards : No value assigned by National Health & Medical Research Council. A limit of 10mg/m3 for nuisance dust is recommended.

Engineering Controls : None

Personal Protection : No specific protection required. Gloves are advisable when handling cut ends of pipe. May shatter if impacted under stress, particularly when cold. When working with the product, normal safety glasses are recommended, and dust mask if sawing with abrasive wheel or sanding.

Flammability : Combustible, Self-extinguishing

Safe Handling Information

Storage & Transport : No specific requirements. Road does not consider PVC pipe products hazardous for transportation according to Transport of Goods and Rail Acts.

Handling : Injury can be sustained by rolling pipes. Unpack crates and bundles on a flat surface, and ensure free stacks are adequately chocked. Do not climb on stacks.

Material Working : Normal safe practices should be employed when working with the material: a well ventilated area and the use of dust masks and eye protection when cutting. When heating for bending, or other forming, use hot water or air with appropriate safeguards. Use of an open flame is inadvisable (see below).

Spills & Disposal : Spillage: not applicable Disposal: Recycle where possible. Refer to appropriate environmental protection agency/authority. Normally suitable for disposal as general waste landfill.

Fire / Explosion Hazard : Combustible, Self-extinguishing. No explosion risk. If forced to burn will emit dense acid fumes containing noxious and toxic compounds including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiate. Carbon monoxide is toxic. Hydrogen chloride is highly acidic and a severe irritant in low concentrations. All are potentially lethal in high concentrations with sustained exposure. Hydrogen chloride has a highly detectable pungent odour and is intolerable in very low concentrations. The risk of exposure to hazardous levels for sustained periods is therefore considered low.

Fire-fighting Procedures : Wear fully protective body suit with self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to prevent contact with gases produced during combustion.

Fire-extinguishing Media : Use water, water fog or foam to extinguish fires. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical are suitable, but are not preferred, as lack of cooling capacity may result in re-ignition.